Welcome to our Vacuum Tube Audio Amplifier Bibliography.  Once completed, there will be over 100 articles referenced.

Note:  The following bibliography is not meant to be comprehensive, but is a compilation of my favorite amplifier articles from the late 1940s to the mid 1960s.  I have built many of these amplifiers during the past 20 or so years.  Several “recent” articles from The Audio Amateur, Glass Audio, and Sound Practices will also be included.  Two of our amplifier designs appeared in Glass Audio magazine.  Happy reading & constructing!  elc

Click on thumbnails to view full-size photos.  Note: Pictures open up a new window--click out of window to return to bibliography.

The many facets of Hi-Fi Barbie.

Big Barbie ain't takin' no prisoners with her Big Barbie speaker!

Little Schoolgirl Barbie takes her pet Acrosound TO-290 for a walk.

(1957 February). “Output Transformerless Amplifiers,” Wireless World.

(1958 March). “The ‘Mark III’,” Radio & TV News, pp. 138-139.

Amemiya, H. (1956 April). “An Output-Transformerless Amplifier,” Journal of the Audio Engineering Society.

Bailey, A. R. (1962 September). “New Phase-Splitter,” Wireless World, pp. 411-413.

Bates, R. H. (1949 November). “A Direct-Coupled Amplifier with Cathode Follower,” Radio & Television News, pp. 62-63.

Baumgardner, J. (1952 March). “High Quality 50 Watt Amplifier,” Radio & Television News, pp. 58-61.

Becker, N. V. (1957 February). “TV Tube for High Fidelity,” Radio-Electronics, pp. 39-40.

Bereskin, A. B. (?). “A High Efficiency High Quality Audio Frequency Power Amplifier,” Transactions of the I.R.E., pp. 49-60.

Berglund, S. (1976 April). “Transistor Driver for Valve Amplifiers,” Wireless World, pp. 36-40.

Bernard, W. B. (1957 January). “The Care and Treatment of Feedback Audio Amplifiers,” Audio, pp. 20-21, 65-69.

Blum, E. W. (1960 October). “Low-Distortion 3-Watt Audio Amplifier,” Electronics World, pp. 46-47.

Boegli, C. P. (1954 July). “A 35-Watt ‘Infinite Feedback’ Amplifier,” Radio & Television News, pp. 39-42.

Boegli, C. P. (1955 November). “A 13-Watt All-Triode ‘Infinite Feedback’ Amplifier,” Radio & Television News, pp. 68-70.

Boegli, C. P. (1961 April). “Amplifiers with Positive and Negative Feedback,” Audio, pp. 18-22, 74-75.

Bourget, L. (1957 November). “Stereo Monaural Companion Amplifier for the ‘Preamp with Presence’,” Audio, pp. 19-22, 88-89.

Brociner, V. & Shirley, G. (1952 June). “The OTL (Output-Transformer-Less) Amplifier,” Audio Engineering, pp. 21-23, 45-46.

Dr. FrankenBarbie is elated by the glow of an 811.

Glamorous Model Barbie prefers authentic McIntosh tubes.

Single-Ended Barbie poses next to her 807-based amplifier.

Childs, U. J. (1951 July). “The ‘Childs’ Custom-Built Amplifier,” Radio & Television News, pp. 37-40, 101-102, 104.

Crowhurst, N. H. (1957 November). “High Fidelity at Low Cost…with Twin-Coupled Amplifier,” Radio-Electronics, pp. 39-44.

Crowhurst, N. H. (1960 November). “Puzzled About Output Transformers,” Radio-Electronics, pp. 33-34.

Crowhurst, N. H. (1960 October). “High Power for the Twin-Coupled Amplifier,” Radio-Electronics, pp. 34-38.

Dalzell, L. B. (1959 December). “The Low-Loading Self-Biased Amplifier,” Audio, pp. 19-21.

Dalzell, L. B. (1959 March). “60-Watt Amplifier with a Silicon Rectifier Power Supply,” Audio, pp. 36, 38, 40, 83, 85.

Dell, E. T., Jr. (1977 Issue 4). “Audio Research Remakes Dynaco’s Stereo 70,” The Audio Amateur, pp. 4-11, 28.

DePalma, B. (1955 June). “A High-Power Amplifier with Minimum Distortion,” Audio, pp. 15-17, 75-76.

Diamond, J. M. (1953 November). “Multiple-Feedback Audio Amplifier,” Electronics, pp. 148-149; Bernard, W. B. (1954 January). “Backtalk,” Electronics, pp. 401-402, 404; Diamond, J. (1954 June). “Backtalk,” Electronics, pp. 378, 380-382.

Dickie, D. P., Jr. & Macovski, A. (1954 June). “A Transformerless 25-Watt Amplifier for Conventional Loudspeakers,” Audio, pp. 22-23, 56-58.

Dorf, R. H. (1954 August). “High-Quality Audio, Part XII--A Popular ‘Inverter,’ the Cross-Coupled Amplifier,” Radio-Electronics, pp. 54-55.

Ferguson, W. A. (1955). “Design for a 20-Watt High Quality Amplifier,” Wireless World, Vol. 61, pp. 223.

Fidelman, D. (1955 January). “Combining Positive and Negative Feedback in an Audio Amplifier,” Radio & Television News, pp. 56-58, 85, 86.

Fleming, L. (1950). “Controlling Hum in Audio Amplifiers,” Radio & Television News, pp. 55-58, 180.

Fletcher, E. W. & Cooke, S. F. (1951 November). “Cathode-Follower Loudspeaker Coupling,” Electronics, pp. 118-121.

Futterman, J. (1954 October). “An Output-Transformerless Power Amplifier,” Journal of the Audio Engineering Society, pp. 252-256.

Futterman, J. (1956 October). “A Practical Commercial Output-Transformerless Amplifier,” Journal of the Audio Engineering Society, pp. 163-167.

Futterman, J. (1959 May). “Ultra-Stable OTL Hi-Fi Amplifier,” Electronics World, pp. 69-72, 110.

Gilbert, F. H. (1952 August). “Commercial OTL Amplifier of Unique Design,” Audio Engineering, Vol. 36, pp. 46-47.

Greiner, R. A. (1961 September). “Another Power Amplifier!,” Audio, pp. 19-22.

Beautiful Ballet Barbie and her Mac tuner.

Mighty, mighty Barbie!

Hot Lingerie Barbie stays cool next to an 813.

Hafler, D. & Keroes, H. I. (1952 June). “Ultra-Linear Operation of the Williamson Amplifier,” Audio Engineering, pp. 26-27, 43-44.

Hafler, D. (1956 June). “A 50-Watt Power Amplifier,” Radio & Television News, pp. 61-63, 116, 119, 120.

Harrison, C. W., Jr. (1957 August). “High-Quality Treble Amplifier,” Audio, pp. 15-16, 45.

Hartley, H. A. (1957 February). “Realistic High-Fidelity--Part 10,” Radio & Television News, pp. 51-53, 168-170.

Heath, W. I. & Woodville, G. R. (1958 January). “The 88-50—a Low-Distortion 50-Watt Amplifier,” Audio, pp. 19, 21-23, 73-74.

Hedge, L. B. (1956 June). “Cascode A.F. Amplifier,” Wireless World, pp. 283-287.

Hedge, L. B. (1956 October). “The Long-Tailed Cascode Pair,” Radio-Electronics, pp. 40-42.

Hoadley, J. C. (1950 June). “Cathode Follower Driven Amplifier,” Radio & Television News,” pp. 49-51, 139-140.

Hust, L. B. (1952 April). “A High-Quality Auditorium Amplifier,” Radio & Television News, pp. 65-68, 149.

Hust, L. B. (1953 September). “Extended Class A Amplifier,” Radio & Television News, pp. 40-42, 146-148.

Jacobs, P. & Jariwala, P. (1961 March). “Dual 35-Watt Stereo Amplifier,” Electronics World, pp. 29-32, 85.

Jeffery, E. (1961 April). “Low-Cost Stereo Amplifier, Part 1,” Wireless World, pp. 185-190.

Jeffery, E. (1961 May). “Low-Cost Stereo Amplifier, Part 2,” Wireless World, pp. 266-272.

Johnston, R. C. (1955 October). “A Cathode Follower Amplifier,” Radio & Television News, pp. 124-125.

Model Barbie pumps iron, then goes onstage with her 813.

Bare Naked Barbie and the Nude-Based 6BX7s.

Egad! Create your own caption for this one.

Kane, G. C. (1959 August). “Variable Electronic Crossover and Biamplifier,” Audio, pp. 42, 44, 46, 48, 83.

Kauder, A. J. (1960 January). “Universal Feedback Amplifier Circuit,” Audio, pp. 19-21.

Keroes, H. I. (1950 December). “Building the ‘Williamson’ Amplifier,” Radio & Television News, pp. 52-53, 76.

Knapp, J. Z. (1954 May). “The ‘Linear Standard’ Amplifier,” Radio & Television News, pp. 43-46, 113-114.

Knight, M. B. (1956 November). “Tube Types for Audio Use,” Radio & Television News, pp. 64-66, 162.

Krauss, S. L. (1954 August). “A Heavy-Duty Audio Amplifier,” Radio & Television News, pp. 48-49, 112.

Laurent, E. A. (1959 December). “Improving the Mullard 520 Hi-Fi Amplifier,” Electronics World, pp. 66-67, 128.

Loomis, E. C. (1953 April). “Modified Childs’ Amplifier Power Supply,” Radio & Television News, pp. 57-60, 102.

MacDonald, J. R. (1955 July-August). “A Multi-Loop, Self-Balancing Power Amplifier,” IRE Transactions--Audio, pp. 92-107.

MacDonald, J. R. (1957 May-June). “Some Augmented Cathode Follower Circuits,” IRE Transactions on Audio, pp. 63-70.

Marshall, J. (1953 November). “Junior Golden Ear Amplifier,” Radio-Electronics, pp. 55-57.

Marshall, J. (1954 April). “Milady’s Golden Ear Amplifier,” Radio-Electronics, pp. 50-55.

Marshall, J. (1954 February). “The New Golden-Ear Amplifier--Part 2,” Audio Engineering, pp. 22-23, 54.

Marshall, J. (1954 January). “The New Golden-Ear Amplifier,” Audio Engineering, pp. 17-18, 46-48.

Marshall, J. (1956 August). “The Laboratory Golden Ear,” Radio-Electronics, pp. 41-43.

Marshall, J. (1956 September). “The Laboratory Golden Ear, Part II,” Radio-Electronics, pp. 56-58.

Mitchell, R. M. (1950 October). “A Wide-Range Feedback Amplifier,” Radio & Television News, pp. 66-68, 166.

Nelson, N. (1954 April). “The Audio Cathode Follower,” Radio & Television News, pp. 50-51, 110.

Audiophile Barbie on the go with her "portable" hi-fi components.

Flying high with output transformers. More transformers below.

Don't forget to read the Radiotron Designer's Handbook. Barbie did.

Olson, H. F. & Morgan, A. R. (1950 November). “A High-Quality Sound System for the Home,” Radio & Television News, pp. 60-63, 140.

Onder, K. (1953 October). “A New Transformerless Amplifier Circuit,” Journal of the Audio Engineering Society, 1, pp. 282-286.

Onder, K. (1954 February). “Audio Amplifier Matches Voice-Coil Impedance,” Electronics, pp. 176-179.

Peters, D. P. (19?? November). “In Defense of the Split-Load Phase Inverter,” Radio & TV News, pp. 182, 184.

Peterson, A. (1952 January). “A Single-Ended Push-Pull Audio Amplifier,” Proceedings of the I.R.E., pp. 7-11.

Porto, E. J. (1956 April). “High Fidelity Performance with Mullard’s 520 Circuit,” Radio & Television News, pp. 66-68, 139.

Price, R. L. (1954 March). “Cascode Audio Amplifier has Low Noise Level,” Electronics, pp. 156-157.

Prior, N. (1957 October). “Improving the Cross-Coupled Inverter,” Radio & Television News, pp. 112-113.

Rheinfelder, W. A. (1966 March). “Substituting FETs For Tubes in Hi-Fi Amplifiers,” Electronics World, pp. 42-43.

Saslaw, D. Editor (1960 January). “Audio Designer’s Handbook--Parts I and II,” Audio, pp. 26-28, 30, 72-73.

Sharpe, R. (1956 March). “3-in-1 Amplifier,” Radio-Electronics,” pp. 53-55.

Southworth, G. (1950 June). “Linearity Tests with an Oscilloscope,” Radio & Television News, pp. 66-67, 157.

Sterling, H. T. & Sobel, A. (1953 March). “Constant-Current Audio Power Amplifiers,” Electronics, pp. 122-125.

Sterling, H. T. (1951 August). “A 300-B Amplifier With Feedback Driver,” Radio & Television News, pp. 52-53, 113.

Still, J. N. (1959 July). “Hi-Fi with Triodes,” Electronics World, pp. 60-62, 129.

Stone, L. C. (1955 June). “At Home with Audio,” Audio, pp. 18-21, 62-63.

Strandberg, M. W. P. (1961 December). “OTL Vacuum Tube Amplifier,” Audio, pp. 18-21, 58.

Voss, R. M. & Ellis, R. (1959 September). “A Ten-Watt All-Triode Amplifier,” Audio, pp. 40, 42, 90-91.

Voss, R. M. & Ellis, R. (1961 March). “Triode Operation of KT88’s,” Audio, pp. 30, 32, 59.

Voss, R. M. & Ellis, R. (1964 July). “A New Triode Amplifier,” Audio, pp. 22-23, 35.

White, S. (1956 May). “Experiment III—The Beta-Tron,” Audio, pp. 28-29, 74.

Witherspoon, J. C. (1959 January). “The Purple Cow,” Audio, pp. 30-31, 34, 35, 66-67.

Worthen, E. F. (1958 August). “The New ‘Isodyne’ Phase Splitter,” Audio, pp. 26-27.

Wright, T. M. (1961 June). “Improving the Williamson Amplifier,” Electronics World, pp. 104-106.

Yeh, C. (1953 June). “Analysis of a Single-Ended Push-Pull Audio Amplifier,” Proceedings of the I.R.E., pp. 743-747.

Zink, H. D. & Sanford, L. R. (1957 November). “A New Look at Positive Current Feedback,” Radio & T.V. News, pp. 56-57, 137.


The Audio Cyclopedia, 1st Edition, by Howard M. Tremaine, pp. 311-415, © 1959 Howard W. Sams & Co., Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana.

Handbook of Sound Reproduction, by Edgar M. Villchur, pp. 118-155, 168-183, 204-213, © 1957 Radio Magazines, Inc., Mineola, New York.

High Fidelity Techniques, by John H. Newitt, pp. 220-221, 252-285, © 1953 Rinehart & Company, Inc.

RCA Receiving Tube Manual, © 1973 by RCA Corporation.

Radiotron Designer’s Handbook, Fourth Edition, Edited by F. Langford-Smith, © 1953 Wireless Press, Sydney, Australia.